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2举例说明欧洲饮食民俗与礼仪  The main Course is usually served by the host himself, especially if it is a fowl or a roast which need to be carved. He will often ask each guest what piece he prefers, and it is quite proper to state your preference as to lean or fat, dark or light. Dinner usually begins with soup. The largest spoon at your place is the soup spoon. It will be beside your plate at the right-hand side .For the main or meat curse, the English keep the fork in the left hand, point curved downward, and bring the food to the mouth either by sticking the points onto it or in the case of soft vegetables, by placing it firmly on the fork in this position with the knife.The hostess may or may not ask if you would like a second helping, according to the formality of the meal. If she does and you accept it, you should pass your plate to her or to the servant with the knife and fork still lying on it.When there are things on the middle of the table, such as bread, butter, jelly, pickles, nits, candies, you should not take any until the hostess has suggested that they be passed. 
3. 举例说明欧洲饮食文化禁忌 英国人只吃动物的肉,而不吃动物的内脏、头、蹄、血等部分。在口味方面,他们喜清淡、酥香,不爱辣味,较少吃海鲜。德国人喜欢肉食,尤其是香肠,但他们不吃猪蹄等。他们讲究食物的新鲜营养,不吃有化学成分的食物。德国人很节俭,多数时候会把食物吃得很干净,不吃咀嚼后需要再吐出来的东西,比如螃蟹、河鱼等。法国人不吃肝脏之外的动物内脏、无鳞鱼和带细刺的鱼,不吃味精,也不爱吃辣味的菜肴。饮食禁忌包括忌吃各种动物的头、脚、内脏做成的食品;忌吃狗肉、蛇肉等他们常用来做宠物的动物的肉;忌吃大蒜等味道过于浓烈的调味品。在饮食规矩方面,西方人吃饭采用的是分餐制,自取自食,不喜欢的饭菜要少要或不要,忌菜盘剩下食物不用,所以他们重威严和尊贵。 
4. 举例说明欧洲饮食与宗教节日的关系 
5. Easter is the Christian commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus as a religious holiday.Over the past year the spring equinox, the first full moon of the first Sunday after Easter.Church of Christ in the early years of the date of Easter, there have been controversial, causing momentary confusion, until 325 AD, the priests of the Church of the meeting before deciding on a day to celebrate the unification of the Easter.  As with the Easter Bunny and the holiday itself, the Easter Egg predates the Christian holiday of Easter. The exchange of eggs in the springtime is a custom that was centuries old when Easter was first celebrated by Christians. From the earliest times, the egg was a symbol of rebirth in most cultures. Eggs were often wrapped in gold leaf or, if you were a peasant, colored brightly by boiling them with the leaves or petals of certain flowers。Today, children hunt colored eggs and place them in Easter baskets along with the modern version of real Easter eggs those made of plastic or chocolate candy。 
6. 简述中西饮食文化的差异 饮食观念上的不同。中国人更加注重食物色、香、味的有机融合和统一。食物在颜色上鲜亮,尤其是绿色蔬菜,这样才会让人看起来有食欲。而西方人则更加注重饮食营养的科学和合理搭配,几乎不考虑食物的色、香、味,他们考虑更多的是食物所含热量、维生素、蛋白质和维他命等营养物质的多少,以及每天这些营养物质摄入量的多少.在用餐方式和礼仪上的不同。中国人在用餐的时候,大都会围坐在一起,而且喜欢用圆形的餐桌,大家都从相同的盘子里夹菜,这些在西方人看来是不卫生的,容易传染疾病。中国人在用餐的时候还特别讲究礼仪,年长者通常会坐在显要的位置上。 
7. 西方节日食俗特点 

Christmas day is on December 25, people around the world celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ.Some people celebrate by giving gifts. Children may be thanking Santa Claus for new toys. They may also be going to church with their families. All the people always decorate a Christmas tree and sing and dance at home on Christmas day.The traditional Christmas dinner is a very popular ceremony.It is usually very similar to the Thanksgiving feast where turkey,hamand stuffing are served.Savory treats remind us of home and family.Sweet desserts are exceptionally important to the Christmas season.Sugar cookies are a really popular treat at holiday time.Gingerbread men and candy canes are also super additions to the Christmas plate.Fudge,fruitcake,applecider,and pumpkin pie also spark memories of wonderful times during the holiday.Most food prepared during the Christmas season is easy to make and even more fun to eat.A large portion of the foods we eat during the season come from European traditions,especially those in England.Fig pudding is a common dessert that has been served throughout the region for centuries and is also popular in America.8、英国茶文化 英国茶文化源远流长,约始于17世纪中期,当时的查理二世王后凯瑟琳公主非常喜欢饮茶,被称为“饮茶皇后”。在她的影响和推动下,饮茶之风很快在全国普及。到18世纪,英国已成为世界上人均茶叶消费量******的国家,19世纪时,茶室和茶舞很盛行。当今的英国人,仍然热衷于饮茶,茶文化一如既往。英国人对茶的概念和理解与我们不一样,他们通常喜欢喝红茶,市场上销售的茶大都是小袋装的碎茶。当今的英国人喝茶,多数是在上午10点左右和下午4点左右。他们尤其重视下午4点左右的“午后茶”。 8.西方咖啡文化 西方咖啡文化的特点总的说来是热情洋溢、奔放自由、简洁随意、快捷方便。浪漫法国的咖啡文化是一种优雅韵味,浪漫情调,和享受生活的惬意感。这也是一种传统独特的咖啡文化。咖啡对他们来说不只是一种饮品,它隐含着丰富的文化内涵。遍布城市与乡村的咖啡馆是法国生活方式的一种标志。法国人喝咖啡讲究的似乎不在于味道,而是环境和情调,他们愿意在外面热闹的街市花一壶的价钱买一小杯咖啡,慢慢地品,细细地尝,读书看报,高谈阔论,一“泡”就是大半天。 
9. 欧洲酒文化 葡萄酒一直是欧洲文化里面重要的一环,早在5000多年前居住在高加索南部的人们,就了解如何酿制葡萄酒饮用。罗马帝国时代,人们将葡萄酒视为上天美妙的赐与,称之为“水中之火”,当时装酒的容器为双耳尖底的陶器,今天我们在庞贝遗迹还可以看到大量的这种陶瓮,还有像我们中国传统炉灶似的营业酒吧台。罗马人嗜酒如命,在发堀出来的考古遗迹中,单是破损的酒瓶就堆成了46公尺高的酒瓶山,可见葡萄酒受欢迎的程度。早期的罗马帝国将葡萄酒的种植以及酿造以法令加以垄断,但是随著基督教的传播,葡萄酒的生产也随著扩散到欧洲各地。 
10. 10.享用西餐须知的礼仪 在西方,去饭铺吃饭通常都要事前预定,在预定时,有几点要尤为注意说清楚,******要说明人口和时间,其次要表明能否要区或视线令人满意的座位。去高档的餐厅,男人要穿整齐清洁;女性要穿套装和有跟的鞋子。假如指名穿正式的服装的话,男人一定打方巾,进入餐厅时,男人应先开箱,请女性进入。应请女性走在前面。就座、餐点端来时,都应让女士优先。***得体的就座方法是从左侧入座。当椅子被拉开后,身体在简直要遇到桌子的间隔站直,领位者会把椅子推动来,腿弯遇到后面的椅丑时,就能坐下来了。就餐时,上臂和背部要通过到椅背,腹部和桌子Hold住约一个拳头的间隔。双脚穿插的坐姿******防止。  

11. 请简述某一国家饮食文化的特点 

French cuisine is extremely diverse, with only the Chinese having similar variety in their food. This variety is supported by the French passion for good food in all its forms, France's extraordinary range of different geographies and climates which support the local production of all types of ingredients, and France's long and varied history. In many ways, an understanding of the culture of French food is an understanding of France itself. Almost all the famous French dishes are regional specialties, some of which have become popular throughout France (such as Coq au Vin and Foie Gras) while others are mainly enjoyed in the regions in which they originate. Although regional specialties,are often offered throughout France, the quality of ingredients and preparation is often superior in their region of origin. In all parts of France one will find a range of dishes, both in restaurants and in homes, which extends far beyond the regional specialities. However, in much of France the regional influences in terms of ingredients and cooking are marked. The most available food and the best cooking tend to be those produced from local ingredients and using local recipes. Therefore, the decision of where to visit or live in France tends to influence which types of food one will enjoy